Arctic Human Development Report

Regional Processes and Global Linkages

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The goals of the second volume of the AHDR – Arctic Human Development Report: Regional Processes and Global Linkages – are to provide an update to the first AHDR (2004) in terms of an assessment of the state of Arctic human development; to highlight the major trends and changes unfolding related to the various issues and thematic areas of human development in the Arctic over the past decade; and, based on this assessment, to identify policy relevant conclusions and key gaps in knowledge, new and emerging Arctic success stories.



Legal Systems

The formal legal systems of the Arctic comprise the legal systems of the eight nation states (including the Danish autonomous territories of Greenland and the Faroe Islands), of which three are federal states (with law-making powers devolved in varying degrees to their northern subunits) and five are unitary states. Greenland has a distinctive status, having opted for Self-Rule in 2009. Global and regional norms of international law are also significant, as are the norms of the European Union (EU) that bind Finland and Sweden as member states. In addition, as members of the European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement Norway and Iceland apply many EU norms. A more pluralist account of legal systems includes less formal arrangements such as the customary norms of Indigenous peoples (Watson Hamilton, 2013; Webber, 2013). There is a dynamic interaction between these different normative systems.


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