Pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products as environmental pollutants

Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland

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The application of pharmaceuticals and personal care products is substantial in industrialized and high-income north-western European societies. Faroe Island, Iceland and Greenland are part of this modern society, although some areas are more suffused by technology and modern living than others. This also pertains to the standards of the local solutions for waste water treatment systems, but not so much to the health services. The present report summarises the results of screening analyses of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products in presumed hotspots in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland. The study focuses on sewage lines from households and industry in general, and from hospitals. In all 38 pharmaceuticals or metabolites of pharmaceuticals and 7 personal care products were analysed.



Analysis methods

Native acetylsalicylic acid, amiloride hydrochloride, amlodipine, atenolol, rac bendroflumethiazide, candesartan, S-citalopram oxalate, diclofenac sodium salt, dipyridamole, (S,S,S)-enalapril maleate, enalaprilat dihydrate, omeprazole, 17β-estradiol, estriol, estrone, 17α- ethinylestradiol, fluoxetine hydrochloride, furosemide, gliclazide, hydrochlorothiazide, rac ibuprofen, thyroxine sodium salt, lidocaine hydrochloride monohydrate, losartan potassium salt, metformin hydrochloride, rac metoprolol hemi (+)-tartrate, rac naproxen, paracetamol (acetaminophen), paroxetine hydrochloride, perindopril t-butylamine salt, perindoprilat, sertraline hydrochloride, simvastatin, D,L-venlafaxine hydrochloride, warfarin and zopiclone were purchased from TRC and sulfamethizole from Sigma, all of 98% purity. Isotope-labelled compounds used as surrogate standard mixes and some as well as volumetric standards were purchased from TRC: d4-amlodipine maleic acid salt, d5-candesartan, d6-citalopram oxalate, d4-diclofenac, d5-(S,S,S)-enalapril maleate, d3-estriol, d4-estrone, d5-fluoxetine hydrochloride, d3-rac ibuprofen, d6-metformin hydrochloride, d7-rac metoprolol, d4-paracetamol (acetaminophen), defluoro paroxetine hydrochloride, d3-rac sertraline hydrochloride, d6-simvastatin, d6-(D,L-)venlafaxine and d8-zopiclone with 98% chemical purity and 99% isotopic purity; d5-furosemide with 98.8% chemical purity and 98% isotopic purity and 13C,d2- hydrochlorothiazide with 97% chemical purity and 99% isotopic purity.


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