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Polar Law Textbook

image of Polar Law Textbook

The idea for this textbook developed from the recognition of the need to disseminate information about Polar Law as an emerging field of legal studies - an area of study long overdue greater recognition. Developments in the Polar Regions - the Arctic and Antarctica - are now the subject of growing interest and importance. They concern a divergent range of global and regional development issues and beg further inquiry into the role of law in dealing with many of these issues. This textbook is the first educational material of its kind. It attempts to illustrate the importance of legal values in addressing various challenges across the Nordic region, among remote Arctic communities and globally. The textbook focuses on the various developments in international and domestic law concerning the Polar Regions (e.g., issues of environmental law, law of the sea, resources, human rights law and Indigenous peoples’ rights, etc.). By looking at linkages between different areas of law and the other social sciences, the textbook also explores the relevant aspects of the economic, social and political developments affecting both Polar areas (e.g., questions of Polar governance, economics, and the political situation in some of the Arctic areas). The authors hope that this pioneering work will encourage anybody interested in Polar Law to pursue further studies, research or cooperation on the many initiatives which take place within the Nordic, Arctic and global community in relation not just to the Arctic but also to the Antarctic.

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Economies and Business in the Arctic Region

The economies of the high North have a number of common characteristics that set them apart from economies in the world beyond. Important differences between the regions as well as variations between local communities within regions are however also important. While the formal economy of the North is characterised by resource extraction, the local economy can be described as a mixed economy where market and nonmarket activities all play an important role in supporting community livelihoods. Wage employment, traditional pursuits, and transfer income from government all provide important sources of income. The relative size and importance of the market, non-market, and transfer sector varies throughout the North. The formal and market-based economy is characterized by the role and presence of the large-scale capital and skillintensive nature of industrial resource production, whereas the informal, subsistence based - non-market - economy is characterised by traditional pursuits of hunting, trapping, gathering, but increasingly with connections to the local market economy.

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