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Tourism, Nature and Sustainability

A Review of Policy Instruments in the Nordic Countries

image of Tourism, Nature and Sustainability

Recently, the Nordic countries have experienced a rapid growth in numbers of visitors. At some popular nature attractions this has resulted in crowding, environmental damage, costly rescue operations and overload on public infrastructure. Implementation of economic policy instruments have hence been suggested to secure a more sustainable development. While the applicability of e.g. entrance fees is restricted by the public rights of access, economic instruments tend to represent short-sighted solutions. Sustainable development requires holistic policies, which take environmental, social and economic aspects into consideration in a long-term perspective. To achieve a more sustainable development of tourism, it is suggested that a limited use of economic instrument should take place in combination with adaptive management strategies and available legal and administrative instruments.

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Tourism in the Nordic countries – current trends

While nearly all visitors to Iceland arrive by air, a substantial proportion of foreign tourists in the other Nordic countries travel by private cars, trains or buses from nearby countries. Tourism in all the Nordic countries is dominated by what is often associated with nature-based tourism. To a greater extent than its Nordic counterparts, tourism in Denmark is characterized by both urban and coastal tourism. These forms of tourisms nevertheless include many aspects of nature-based tourism, such as fishing, mountain biking and swimming.

English

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