Tourism, Nature and Sustainability

A Review of Policy Instruments in the Nordic Countries

image of Tourism, Nature and Sustainability

Recently, the Nordic countries have experienced a rapid growth in numbers of visitors. At some popular nature attractions this has resulted in crowding, environmental damage, costly rescue operations and overload on public infrastructure. Implementation of economic policy instruments have hence been suggested to secure a more sustainable development. While the applicability of e.g. entrance fees is restricted by the public rights of access, economic instruments tend to represent short-sighted solutions. Sustainable development requires holistic policies, which take environmental, social and economic aspects into consideration in a long-term perspective. To achieve a more sustainable development of tourism, it is suggested that a limited use of economic instrument should take place in combination with adaptive management strategies and available legal and administrative instruments.



Conclusions and recommendations

Unparalleled growth in the numbers of visitors to certain attractions and destinations in the Nordic countries has resulted in environmental damage, costly rescue operations and overload on common goods, such as public infrastructure. Increasing differentiation, specialization and the individualization of tourism practices, influenced in part by the information flow in social media, make development trends less predictable and tourism more difficult to manage through planning strategies and various regulating instruments.


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