Technical report

Nordic Green to Scale

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This technical analysis for the Nordic Green to Scale report was commissioned to CICERO (Center for International Climate and Environmental Research – Oslo), which is Norway’s foremost institute for interdisciplinary climate research. The report illustrates the scaling potential of 15 proven Nordic low-carbon solutions and presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions reductions of these solutions and their scalability internationally.



Energy sector solutions

In both Finland and Denmark, a large majority of buildings in urban areas is served by district heating networks, and a high share of the heat is supplied by waste heat from combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Additionally, in Finland, most heat for industrial use is also supplied by CHP. Thermal power generation (generating electricity by burning fossil fuels, biomass or other combustible substances) inevitably wastes large amounts of energy as waste heat – from 40% for highly efficient gas plants to as high as 85% for some types of waste burning or very old coal plants – as the laws of thermodynamics severely limit how much of the heat energy released during combustion can be transformed into electricity or other high-grade forms of energy. CHP offers the benefit of utilizing this waste heat, thus reducing the need to burn additional fuel solely to generate heat, and avoiding the additional CO2 emissions associated with that heat generation.


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