State of biodiversity in the Nordic countries

An assessment of progress towards achieving the target of halting biodiversity loss by 2010

image of State of biodiversity in the Nordic countries

The Nordic countries have agreed on a common target to halt the decline in biodiversity by 2010. This report aims at evaluating the 2010-target by presenting indicators that can describe trends in biodiversity in the Nordic countries. Our results comprise the most comprehensive documentation of land use in the Nordic countries to date. The area of important nature types such as mire, grassland and heathland have decreased significantly over the past one to two decades, whereas the area of constructed habitats, including city areas and transport networks, has grown considerably in all of the Nordic countries. Each of these trends in land use will cause biodiversity to decline. Looking into the quality aspect of biodiversity, our results reveal that two-thirds of the quality indicators presented show declines and the remaining one-third show improvements (or steady-state). Overall, our results indicate that biodiversity has declined in the Nordic countries since 1990. In particular, farmland, mire, grassland and heathland habitats show declines in biodiversity, but also the remaining habitats show negative trends. Therefore, based on the findings from this study, we conclude that it is highly unlikely that the target of halting biodiversity loss by 2010 can be achieved by the Nordic countries. Our results should be perceived as a first attempt to make an overall assessment of biodiversity in the Nordic countries. We believe that if further efforts were directed towards scrutinising existing and historic monitoring programmes and data sources, additional indicators could be calculated and hence a better knowledge base would be achieved.



Indicators for forest

Forest is defined as vegetation dominated by trees (usually with more than 30% crown cover). In the Nordic countries it is relevant to categorise forest into the types deciduous (N9.1), coniferous (N9.2) and mixed deciduous and coniferous (N9.3). Mountain birch forest is a dominant forest type along the climatic tree line in large parts of the Nordic region and has its own group (N9.4). The biodiversity varies considerably between these forest types. Coniferous forests are predominant in the boreal zone and dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Boreal deciduous trees such as birch (Betula pubescens) and aspen (Populus tremula) are common in mixtures with coniferous trees or as separate stands. Deciduous forests in the nemoral and boreo-nemoral zones are dominated by oaks (Quercus spp.), beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Wych elm (Ulmus glabra), Norway maple (Acer platanoides), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordota) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus).


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