Retinoids in Mammalian Reproduction, with an Initial Scoping Effort to Identify Regulatory Methods

image of Retinoids in Mammalian Reproduction, with an Initial Scoping Effort to Identify Regulatory Methods

This Nordic report builds on ideas brought forward in the OECD Detailed Review Paper (DRP) 178 on screening and testing methods and endpoints for evaluating endocrine disruptors. It was identified that the retinoid system is not presently included in any OECD test guideline, and that it is urgent to cover this knowledge gap. The present TemaNord report is a contribution to an upcoming OECD DRP on retinoids. An overview of retinoid biology in female and male reproduction is presented. The report identifies that, in general, there is a lack of studies investigating effects of chemicals on reproduction, while simultaneously examining effects on retinoid related parameters. This is a major data gap. However, selected in vitro and/or in silico retinoid-related endpoints, presented in this report, could possibly be part of a broader screening test battery aimed at reproductive toxicity.



Initial scoping effort: assays and endpoints for effects of chemicals on female and male reproduction via the retinoid system

Several existing OECD test guidelines can provide information on endpoints relevant to the estrogen, androgen, steroidogenesis, and thyroid hormone pathways, but currently, no OECD test guidelines include endpoints specifically indicative of retinoid system modulation. Some reproductive parameters already included in existing test guidelines, would also provide information on adverse effects stemming from retinoid disruption. However, due to extensive cross-talk with other pathways, there is no endpoint identified that will give information specifically on disruption of retinoid signaling. The information assembled in this report regarding the role of retinoids in female and male reproduction indicates possible in vitro/ex vivo assays that could associate adverse reproductive outcomes to disruption of retinoid signaling.


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