PFASs in the Nordic environment

Screening of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) and Extractable Organic Fluorine (EOF) in the Nordic Environment

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This report describes a screening study of in all ninety-nine conventional and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Nordic environment. In addition, extractable organic fluorine (EOF) was analysed. The latter can provide the amount, but not identity, of organofluorine in the samples, which in turn can be used to assess the mass balance between known and unknown PFASs. The study was initiated by the Nordic Screening Group and funded by these and the Nordic Council of Ministers through the Chemicals Group.A total of 102 samples were analyzed in this study, including bird eggs, fish, marine mammals, terrestrial mammals, surface water, WWTP effluents and sludge, and air. Samples were collected by institutes from the participating countries and self-governing areas; Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.




Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals with wide commercial and industrial usage since they have very low surface tension, are resistant to heat and chemical degradation as well as being water and oil repelling. Well known application areas include aqueous film forming foams, textiles and food packaging, but some other application areas have been less investigated such as cosmetics, dental restorative materials and dirt-repellent coating for smartphones.


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