Mitigation & Adaptation Synergies in the NDCs

image of Mitigation & Adaptation Synergies in the NDCs

Signatories of Paris Agreement outlined their post-2020 climate actions, known as their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (I)NDCs. This study focuses on potential synergies between adaptation and mitigation in the (I)NDCs. It pays particular attention to the sectors of forestry, agriculture, energy and urban development. It draws on a review of climate change financing literature, and an analysis of the (I)NDCs and the financial and policy frameworks and programmes that make up global climate change financing structure, notably the texts of the Paris Agreement. The report contains recommendations for Nordic stakeholders to drive further synergies between mitigation and adaptation.




The Paris Agreement adopted at COP21 in Paris in December 2015 was the culmination of many years of climate negotiations. The Agreement entered into force in less than a year, thus demonstrating strong political commitment. Ahead of Paris, parties publicly outlined what post-2020 climate actions they intended to take under this new international agreement, known as their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (I)NDCs. There is an increasing need to cope with and adapt to the impacts of climate change especially in developing countries.


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