Landscape experiences as a cultural ecosystem service in a Nordic context

Concepts, values and decision-making

image of Landscape experiences as a cultural ecosystem service in a Nordic context

Cultural ecosystem services in the form of experiences derived from landscapes are potentially important, but often overlooked. Given the large and unprecedented landscape changes many of the Nordic countries are undergoing, there is a need to find ways of including people’s preferences and the value of landscape impacts in policy assessments and decision-making processes. The project aim has been to synthesize knowledge about the magnitude and value of landscape experiences, and investigate current practices and examples of how landscape impacts are incorporated (or not) in policy assessments and decision-making contexts in the Nordics. The literature demonstrates potentially high unaccounted welfare loss from landscape change. We find clear weaknesses in current practices, that a second phase will try to address. The project was carried out by Vista Analysis in Oslo and Department of Environmental Science at Aarhus University from 2014–15.



How are values of landscape experiences currently treated in assessments & decision-making?

Chapter 3 aimed to clarify and provide a better understanding of how landscapes, landscape experiences and cultural ecosystem services are related, and also how natural science, economics and sociology have viewed landscapes and the value of landscapes. Chapter 4 first discussed some of the indicators and methods used to measure monetary and nonmonetary values of various cultural ecosystem services derived from landscapes. Several studies from the Nordics and some international (review) studies were then presented and discussed. Finally, the magnitude and importance of a number of landscape experiences based on data/statistics from the Nordic countries were illustrated.


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