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Improved emission inventories of SLCP

Background analysis

image of Improved emission inventories of SLCP

Emission inventories of Short Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCP), and especially of Black Carbon (BC), are uncertain and not always comparable. Comparable and reliable emission inventories are essential when aiming for efficient strategies and policies for reduced emissions. This report presents the Nordic emissions and emission inventories of SLCP, the important emission sources and their development over time. It also discusses knowledge gaps, factors contributing to the uncertainties, and possibilities for improved emission estimates. The overall objective of the three-year project is to improve the Nordic emission inventories of Short Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCP), with a focus on Black Carbon (BC). This report presents the results from the first phase of the project, an analysis of the present status of knowledge, with focus on BC and particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from residential biomass combustion, on-road and non-road diesel vehicles, and shipping. The next phase will draw on the results from this background analysis in designing and implementing an emission measurement program, where the objective is to expand the knowledge and develop well documented and reliable emission factors, primarily for BC, for use in future national emission inventories.

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Shipping, measurement methods, PM and BC emission factors

Conventionally PM emissions are measured from the stack or exhaust pipe as “primary emissions”. They are defined as PM (total particulates), PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm or PM2.5 (fine particles, > 2.5 μm), at temperatures above the dew point of condensable matter in the emission, applying one of the several European or US standards for undiluted stationary source emissions: ISO9096, VDI 2066, EN13284-1, EPA17, EPA201a, EPA5 standards. From 1996 on another definition for marine PM emission has been adopted, in which exhaust is sampled as diluted and quenched (Bastenhof, 1995, ISO8178:1996). The purpose of this procedure is to take partly into account the liquid and condensable constituents of “particle emission”. The Dilution ratio (Dr) requirement in this procedure is at least 4 (Dr 4). The emissions in this case result in variable amounts of condensed liquid matter (PM) on the filter. This condensed matter has different properties as a pollutant than just the solid matter that is defined by the in-stack standards. For example, the ISO9096 and EPA5a standards define the sampling temperature such (>160 °C), that evaporation of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) from PM is confirmed. On the other end of a “PM” definition, capturing condensable organic and inorganic matter at 0 °C (CPM), results from applying the combination of EPA202 standard (EPA202, 2010) and EPA201a (EPA201a, 2010). EPA201a+EPA202 is probably the most comprehensive definition for exhaust PM. Principles of the most common PM sampling standards applicable to marine engine exhausts are compiled in Table 42.

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