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End-of-Waste Criteria for Construction & Demolition Waste

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This report presents the situation within the Nordic countries with respect to production and recycling of construction and demolition waste, in particular crushed concrete, in the form of aggregates, and discusses the conditions and requirements relating to environmental impacts for a possible application of the End-of-Waste option in the Waste Framework Directive. If this option is applied, the material may become a product and it will no longer be regulated by waste legislation. Regulation of crushed concrete under product legislation presents a number of challenges, particularly with respect to environmental protection. The report presents and proposes a methodology for the setting of leaching and risk-based criteria to be fulfilled by crushed concrete (and other waste aggregates) in order to obtain End-of-Waste status. It is further recommended to set impact-reducing conditions on the use of materials obtaining End-of-Waste criteria, and not to allow free use. It should be noted that the work described in this report was carried out during the period from 2010 to 2012.

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Summary

The Waste Framework Directive (WFD) 2008/98/EC includes the option to set so-called End-of-Waste (EoW) criteria under which specified waste fractions shall cease to be waste. If these criteria are fulfilled, the material will no longer be classified as a waste but it will instead become a product subject to free trade and use (albeit for specific purposes). In accordance with Article 6 (1) of the WFD, a waste material (substance or object) may cease to be waste as defined in the WFD when it has undergone a recovery, including recycling, operation and is commonly used for specific purposes, has a market value, fulfils the technical requirements for the specific purpose and meets existing standards and legislation applicable to products. In addition, criteria shall be set to ensure that the use of the material will not lead to overall adverse environmental or human health impacts. These criteria shall include limit values for pollutants where necessary and shall take into account any possible adverse environmental effects of the material.

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