Ecosystem Services

In the Coastal Zone of the Nordic Countries

image of Ecosystem Services

People are dependent on the ocean and coasts and their resources for their survival and well-being. Coastal ecosystems of the Nordic countries, such as kelp forests, blue mussel beds, eelgrass meadows and shallow bays and inlets, provide a number of supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural ecosystem services to both the local communities as well as the wider population who benefit from them. The study has focused on examining these coastal values through selected examples, and recommend possible applications and relevance for the management of the Nordic coastal areas and their resources. The project has also identified key gaps in the knowledge and suggests where further work should be emphasized.



Ecosystem services of shallow bays and inlets

Shallow and wave sheltered bays and inlets with soft sediments are among the most productive ecosystems in the northern Baltic Sea. These areas host a rich community of vegetation, consisting of submerged rooted plants and charophytes with reed and sedges close to the shore (Appelgren and Mattila 2005, Eriksson et al. 2004), and associated macroinvertebrate fauna (Hansen et al. 2012, 2008). The isolated shallow bays warm early in spring and constitute important recruitment habitats for many species of coastal fish, by functioning as spawning and nursery areas (Härmä et al. 2008, Karås 1996a, 1996b, Karås and Hudd 1993, Lappalainen et al. 2008, Snickars et al. 2009, 2010, Sundblad et al. 2009, 2014).


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