Critical metals in end-of-life products

Recovery potential and opportunities for removal of bottlenecks of recycling

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Critical raw materials (CRM) are used in various applications in different sectors, and their consumption will likely further increase in future. The threats caused by their limited availability and high prices have led to discussion on more efficient use of the resources available. The enhanced recycling of critical raw materials could be a significant opportunity for the Nordic countries.This report focuses on the recycling potential of wastes containing CRMs, analyses of the bottlenecks of recycling, and identifies potential policy instruments to eliminate the barriers or reduce their impact. In order to enhance sustainable recycling, the Nordic countries should improve knowledge of CRM availability, develop new recycling strategies, support demonstration and selected R&D actions, and strengthen Nordic influence on the development of European legislation and standards.




This study aims to identify the of opportunities and potential administrative instruments to enhance the recycling of CRMs in the Nordic countries, and thus to support development of Nordic strategies on CRM recycling. Information about the quantities of critical and precious raw materials in selected end-of-life product groups was collected in order to obtain indications about the recycling potential in the Nordic countries. Together with the analysis of the bottlenecks of recycling and identification of potential policy instruments, the data was used as a basis of recommendations on key measures to enhance sustainable recycling of CRMs.


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