Biological Waste Treatment in Norway and Sweden: What works well and what can be improved?

A synthesis of the nine projects in BUS

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A Swedish-Norwegian project for the follow-up and evaluation of large-scale systems for composting and digestion of source separated biological waste was carried out during 2002–2004, financed by The Swedish Association of Waste Management (RVF) together with several other Swedish and Norwegian organisations. The project was entitled BUS (Biological waste treatment – evaluation of systems).BUS consisted of 10 individual projects carried out by different project leaders. Each of the projects has been presented in a report, published in Swedish in the form of a RVF report, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (NV) report and/or a STEM report. The last individual project consisted of a synthesis of the whole BUS, with the objective to make a collation of the other individual projects within BUS thus providing an overall summary of the projects and presentation of general conclusions. Synthesis is here taken to mean a focus on information and conclusions that cannot be drawn from the individual projects, but that instead have to be based on the results of a combination of several projects. This report contains an English translation of the BUS-synthesis, prepared for The Nordic Council of Ministers’ group on organic waste, within the working group on Products and Waste (The PA-group), with the objective to make the conclusions from BUS available to a broader target group.




During the past years, significant investments have been made in systems for biological waste treatment. At the same time, the technology that is used in the plants is relatively new and is still being developed. Therefore, there are compelling reasons for evaluating existing plants. By collecting experiences from plant operations and by making this information accessible, new systems can be planned and constructed in a safer and better way. This is the main motivation for the series of evaluations that have been collected under the working title BUS. In the initial phase, experience and operational information has been collected from all parts of the waste collection, processing and product-use chain. This information has then been documented in a systemised manner in an evaluation programme. All project reports are accessible in electronic format. The entire framework programme has been summarised in this report that has been compiled by Jan-Olof Sundqvist, the Swedish Environmental Institute (IVL). The projects have been carried out and financed in cooperation between the Swedish Energy Authority (STEM), the Norwegian Association of Solid Waste Management (NRF), the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, the Development Committee of the Swedish Association of Waste Management (RVF), the Swedish Waste Companies Research Organization (Stiftelsen Reforsk), and the Swedish Water and Waste Water Association (VA-Forsk).


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