Biodiversity and Economic Modelling

Links, Challenges and Possible Ways Out

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Is it posible linking biodiversity to macro economic models, thereby increasing our understanding of how economic activities affect biodiversity – et vice versa? It is the key question that this report aims at answering on the basis of existing statistics, indicators and models in the Scandinavian countries. The economic sectors identified as relevant for biodiversity are: agriculture; forestry; fishery; tourism; transport; and energy (especially, hydropower). The main pressure types analysed include: habitat loss and degradation; climate change; excessive nutrient load and other forms of pollution; over-exploitation and unsustainable use; and invasive alien species.A set of recommendations for further work are made focusing on impacts of economic activities on biodiversity.




Biodiversity is under pressure. It is true all over the world, including the Nordic countries, in which, especially, agriculture and forestry have contributed and contribute to the deterioration of biodiversity. It is considered a threat, not only to biodiversity, but also to human life by the world community. Consequently, actions have been taken at various levels to reverse this development. However, progress is not as fast as planned. Many of the 196 countries which are parties to the Convention on Biological Biodiversity from 1992 will hardly reach the so-called Aichi Biodiversity Targets for 2020 approved at the UN Biodiversity Conference in Japan in 2010.


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