Future Opportunities for Bioeconomy

Focus on the West Nordic Region

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Achieving a high quality of waste plastic materials and recycling processes is a key challenge in closing the resource loops for plastics. This report reviews the status and trends for plastic waste flows and treatment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Furthermore, it gives an overview of existing policy instruments and the main challenges for designing policy instruments for improved recycling of plastic waste in these Nordic countries. The report identifies potential market failures associated with closing the resource loops for plastics. It reviews the economics research literature on policy instrument design for achieving optimal recycling rates and makes policy recommendations from the Nordic perspective. Finally, it presents results from a survey on market conditions to managers in the recycling and plastic manufacturing industry in Sweden.



Bioeconomy in the West Nordic countries

A big part of the economy and environmental issues of the West Nordic countries fall under the umbrella of Bioeconomy. When writing a report about the bioeconomy in the West Nordic many issues can be related to all countries in the Arctic area. Here we will though only discuss the bioeconomy of the three countries that are a part of the West Nordic countries; Iceland, Greenland and Faroe Islands as these countries have much in common concerning the bioeconomy. The biological resources of agriculture, forests, wilderness, fresh water, marine and aquaculture in these three countries will be discussed and possibilities and opportunities of further utilisation of the resources identified. Along with these biological resources we will also discuss the reindeer herding in Northern Scandinavia as the circumstances of the reindeer herders are similar to other indigenous people in the Arctic. When referring to the area discussed in this report as a whole we use the term West Nordic countries (Fejl! Henvisningskilde ikke fundet.).


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