Nordic Prison Education

A Lifelong Learning Perspective

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Since the 1970s, a variety of multilateral environmental agreements have been created to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. However, these institutions have not been created systematically, but rather on an ad hoc basis as different aspects of biodiversity loss have come to the centre of international concern. Consequently, this has led to the inability of the current institutions to address biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation in a coherent and effective manner. In this report an initial biodiversity cluster is outlined and 12 recommendations are provided for enhancing synergies between the MEAs in the cluster. Most importantly, the report shows that the contracting parties of the MEAs in the biodiversity cluster need to work more closely together to indentify synergistic solutions that meet national needs. The report also highlights that it is not sufficient alone to make existing institutions work more closely together, but points out a missing institutional structure that needs to be addressed. An independent science policy platform is required to provide the MEAs in the biodiversity cluster with timely and scientifically credible advice for achieving more coherent and effective decision-making.




Education has been provided for all children in Finland since 1898. According to the constitution, enacted in 1919, the public administration is obligated to organize or fund general education, vocational training and higher education. In 1921, legislation on compulsory education saw the light of day. Later, the system underwent a number of reforms, and compulsory education was extended to six years. After four years of primary education, some pupils were selected to go on to five-year secondary school and threeyear upper secondary school. In the 1970s, primary and secondary school were merged, and nine years of compulsory education introduced under the designation of “comprehensive school”. (www.minedu.fi).


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