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Nordic Economic Policy Review

Economics of Education

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The Nordic Economic Policy Review is published by the Nordic Council of Ministers and addresses policy issues in a way that is useful for in-formed non-specialists as well as for professional economists. All articles are commissioned from leading professional economists and are subject to peer review prior to publication. The review appears twice a year. The journal is distributed free of charge to the members of the Nordic economic associations. The easiest way to subscribe to the NEPR is therefore to become a member of one of these associations, i.e.: Denmark: Nationaløkonomisk Forening Finland: Taloustieteellinen Yhdistys Norway: Samfunnsøkonomene Sweden: Nationalekonomiska Föreningen. For institutional subscriptions, please contact [email protected] Content: Economics of education: Policies and effects - Anders Björklund and Peter Fredriksson Long-term effects of early childhood care and education - Christopher Ruhm and Jane Waldfogel Comment by Tarjei Havnes Recruiting, retaining, and creating quality teachers - C. Kirabo Jackson Comment by Torberg Falch On the margin of success? Effects of expanding higher education for marginal students - Björn Öckert Comment by Torbjørn Hægeland Gender differences in education - Tuomas Pekkarinen Comment by Anna Sjögren Educating children of immigrants: Closing the gap in Norwegian schools - Bernt Bratsberg, Oddbjørn Raaum and Knut Røed Comment by Lena Nekby The effects of education on health and mortality - Bhashkar Mazumder Comment by Kjell G. Salvanes

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Long-term effects of early childhood care and education

This paper critically reviews what we know about the long-term effects of parental leave and early childhood education programs. We find only limited evidence that expansions of parental leave durations improved long-run educational or labor market outcomes of the children whose parents were affected by them, perhaps because benefits are hard to measure or confined to sub-groups, or because leave entitlements were sufficiently long, even before recent extensions, to yield most potential benefits. In contrast, expansions of early education generally yield benefits at school entry, adolescence, and in adulthood, particularly for disadvantaged children; however, the gains may be less pronounced when high-quality subsidized child care was available prior to the program expansion or when subsidies increased the use of low-quality care.

English

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