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Nordic Economic Policy Review

Economics of Education

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The Nordic Economic Policy Review is published by the Nordic Council of Ministers and addresses policy issues in a way that is useful for in-formed non-specialists as well as for professional economists. All articles are commissioned from leading professional economists and are subject to peer review prior to publication. The review appears twice a year. The journal is distributed free of charge to the members of the Nordic economic associations. The easiest way to subscribe to the NEPR is therefore to become a member of one of these associations, i.e.: Denmark: Nationaløkonomisk Forening Finland: Taloustieteellinen Yhdistys Norway: Samfunnsøkonomene Sweden: Nationalekonomiska Föreningen. For institutional subscriptions, please contact [email protected] Content: Economics of education: Policies and effects - Anders Björklund and Peter Fredriksson Long-term effects of early childhood care and education - Christopher Ruhm and Jane Waldfogel Comment by Tarjei Havnes Recruiting, retaining, and creating quality teachers - C. Kirabo Jackson Comment by Torberg Falch On the margin of success? Effects of expanding higher education for marginal students - Björn Öckert Comment by Torbjørn Hægeland Gender differences in education - Tuomas Pekkarinen Comment by Anna Sjögren Educating children of immigrants: Closing the gap in Norwegian schools - Bernt Bratsberg, Oddbjørn Raaum and Knut Røed Comment by Lena Nekby The effects of education on health and mortality - Bhashkar Mazumder Comment by Kjell G. Salvanes

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Gender differences in education

The paper surveys the trends in gender gaps in education, their causes and potential policy implications. I show that female educational attainment has surpassed, or is about to surpass, male educational attainment in most industrialized countries. These gaps reflect male overrepresentation among secondary school drop-outs and female overrepresentation among tertiary education students and graduates. Existing evidence suggests that this pattern is a result of a combination of increasing returns to education and lower female effort costs of education. A widening gender gap in education combined with recent wage and employment polarization will likely lead to widening inequalities and is linked to declining male labor force participation. The paper discusses evidence on educational policies that both widen and reduce gender gaps in educational outcomes.

English

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