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Macroeconomic Framework Conditions and the Management of Research and Development in the Nordic Countries

image of Macroeconomic Framework Conditions and the Management of Research and Development in the Nordic Countries

Research and development are often singled out as one of the key drivers of growth in the Nordic economies. However, there appears to be only limited knowledge about how the framework conditions for private sector research and the prioritisation of public sector research ensure efficiency and quality in national research efforts as a whole. The project "Macroeconomic Framework Conditions and the Management of Research and Development in the Nordic Countries" sheds light on the existing framework conditions for research and development in the Nordic countries. The project provides some of the knowledge needed to answer the question of how to ensure that research and development in the both the private and public sector continue to yield high returns. The project also looks into how the various Nordic countries differ from each other in terms of the organisation of and framework conditions for public and private research. The project forms part of the Danish Presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2005.

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Measurement and Main Indicators of R&D and Innovation Activities in the Nordic Countries

Having looked at the importance and some indicators of framework conditions, the following section will look carefully into the inputs to the knowledge producing system and the output hereof. The two main inputs are expenditures to R&D, both private and public, and the available human resources. Output is not easy to measure but the most commonly used indicators are of business R&D output are the number of patents and innovations, whereas the number of published articles in scientific journals is a commonly used indicator of public R&D output. There exist however, some measurement problems which will be described in Appendix C.

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