Table of Contents

  • All Nordic countries are parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (the Stockholm Convention) and the Persistent Organic Pollutants Protocol (the POP Protocol) under the UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). According to the Stockholm Convention, parties to the convention have to reduce, with the aim of eliminating, the unintentional formation and emission of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Emissions of these substances to air, water and soil must be assessed and reported.

  • The background of this project was the need for an overview of existing knowledge regarding sources of unintentional emissions of HCB and PCBs, relevant for the Nordic countries, with the purpose of enabling these countries to fulfil their reporting obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Persistent Organic Pollutants Protocol (the POP Protocol) under the UNECE LRTAP Convention, and finally the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) according to regulation (Regulation (EC) No 166/2006), which implements the UNECE PRTR Protocol. These international agreements require reporting of unintentional emissions/releases of dioxin, HCB and PCBs to air, water and soil. However, until now actual reporting on unintentional emissions has mainly taken place for dioxin to air, and countries have not been able to report on unintentional emissions/releases of HCB and PCBs to air, water and soil, due to the difficulties in assessing these emissions/releases.

  • This project, under the Nordic Council of Ministers, Nordic Chemicals Group, provides an overview of existing information regarding sources and unintentional emissions of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to soil, water and air. Focus is on reporting obligations according to the Stockholm Convention, the UNECE POP Protocol and the PRTR registers under the UNECE PRTR Protocol and the EU PRTR regulation. This potentially contributes to attainment of the objectives of the Stockholm Convention and other POP-related EU and international regulation in the long run, and thereby to a better environment in the Nordic countries, the Arctic and globally.

  • For the identification of sources of unintentional emissions of HCB and PCBs, the reporting guidelines under the Protocol on Pollutant Releases and Transfer Registers (PRTR) are used. The Protocol on Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTR) was adopted on 21 May 2003 during the fifth 'Environment for Europe' Ministerial Conference in Kiev (Regulation (EC) No 850/2004). The protocol, which applies to 36 European countries and the European Union, is the first legally binding international instrument on pollutant release and transfer registers. PRTRs are inventories of pollution released to all media by industrial sites and other sources. As such, the PRTRs implementing the PRTR Protocol will in the long run contain two types of data: facility-level data and data for socalled diffuse sources. A description of diffuse sources, e.g. road transport and domestic heating, where such data is available are presented in section 2.2., while potential sources to be reported in future at facility level are described as potential point sources in section 2.1. In general terms, data for the two types of sources must be integrated into an overall picture of emissions to air, water and land and off-site transfers of waste and of pollutants, here UPOPs, in wastewater (E-PRTR Regulation (EC) No 166/2006).

  • Emission estimates are based on specific activities at country level, as provided in Chapter 2 for each identified potential diffuse or point source for which the necessary data are available. Activity data are multiplied by the emission factor that is judged as most suitable or, if only one relevant emission factor has been found, the available one. Details concerning available and selected emission factors are given in Appendix 1 to 6. Information regarding emissions to soil and water from the energy and industry sectors is limited; nevertheless, activity data for these sources have as far as possible been included in Chapter 2. It is assumed that the potential major sources of release to soil and water may origin from offsite transfer of residue/waste products and wastewater discharge to the municipal sewer system. Therefore, potential sources of unintentional release of HCB and PCBs to soil and water have been included in Chapter 3.3, which presents available information relevant for PRTR code 5 ‘waste and wastewater management’.

  • This study has pointed to a number of likely sources to unintentional releases of HCB and PCBs in the Nordic countries and possible emission magnitudes, and has thereby brought the counries a step closer to being able to report on emissions. However, it has also revealed that with the knowledge available today, a complete assessment of the emissions is not possible and will require further knowledge, including filling the identified gaps.

  • The figures provided in this annex present data and information that was available and accessible at the time the work was carried out on the report. It may be possible to attain a higher level of detail regarding feed material and plant type and size. Therefore the annex represents a screening level review of potential sources to UPOPs from the energy sector as well as fuel consumption from activities categorized as diffuse sources.

  • The figures provided in the annex provide data and information that was available at the time the work was carried out on the report. To the best efforts of the authors, data covers all information regarding relevant sources within the metal and mineral industries. Still, processes outside the knowledge of the authors may very well exist. Therefore the annex represents a screening level review of knowledge on potential sources of UPOPs.

  • Currently cremation is not well addressed at country level (BiPRO, 2006). Still, information from the Swedish dioxin survey estimates a fluegas volume of 600 m3 per cremation (Bergquist et al., 2005). In Sweden 75 crematories are reported to be in operation; no information on technical details is available. Data on the number of cremations are limited, but in Sweden 57,000 cremations took place in 1990 and 61,237 in 1993.