1887

Intake of caffeine and other methylxanthines during pregnancy and risk for adverse effects in pregnant women and their foetuses

image of Intake of caffeine and other methylxanthines during pregnancy and risk for adverse effects in pregnant women and their foetuses

The first part of the report deals with occurrence of methylxanthines in foods, beverages, and medicines, and estimates of caffeine intake. In addition, a short review of the pharmacological and toxicological actions of caffeine is given. The second and main part of the report reviews available information from epidemiological studies on the potential health hazards to the human foetus associated with parental intake during pregnancy of caffeine and related methylxanthines in foods, beverages and medicines. The studied adverse effects are influence on fertility, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformation, pre-term delivery, foetal growth retardation, foetal behaviour and effects on neonates, infants and young children. The conclusion of the report demonstrates the need for limiting caffeine exposure during pregnancy. The Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) recognizes that the human exposure to caffeine and related compounds causes a spectrum of pharmacological effects, for instance cardiovascular, renal, neurological and behavioural effects. The increasing use of caffeine and related methylxanthines in various foods and beverages consumed by children and adolescents cause concern. NNT recommends that a full hazard characterization of caffeine and related methylxanthines should be performed with the aim to reach a conclusion about the upper safe level of intake of these compounds.

English

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Introduction

Caffeine from natural sources has been consumed and enjoyed by humans throughout the world for centuries. The widespread natural occurrence of caffeine in a variety of plants undoubtedly played a major role in the long-standing popularity of caffeine-containing products, especially beverages. It was only during the last century that consumers became exposed to caffeine as a food additive as well. Although commercial manufacturers argue that adding caffeine to beverages enhances flavour, it is difficult to not suspect that there is an attempt to create products whose effects resemble those of naturally occurring caffeine.

English

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