Alkaloids in edible lupin seeds

A toxicological review and recommendations

image of Alkaloids in edible lupin seeds

The report reviews the toxicity data on inherent natural toxicants in lupin seeds, especially quinolizidin alkaloids. Lupin seeds are increasingly used in the Nordic countries, partially substituting wheat flour in certain foods. An estimation of the risk by consuming foods containing lupin seeds in the Nordic countries and recommendations to better ensure the safe use of these seeds in foods are given.




The exact number of lupin species has not been defined (Aniszewski, 1993). The taxonomy of the lupin genus (Lupinus) has given rise to much confusion and for instance some American species are taxonomically illdefined. The Old World has 12 recognized lupin species (Gladstones, 1998). Aniszewski referes in a review that there in the New World alone are 150 or other 200 species. Lopez-Bellido and Fuentes (1986) indicate in their review that the number of lupin species is between 300 and 400. According to Wink et al. (1995) the lupin genus is comprised of more than 500 species, whereas the EU Commission (2006) mentions 450 species.


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