Alkaloids in edible lupin seeds

A toxicological review and recommendations

image of Alkaloids in edible lupin seeds

The report reviews the toxicity data on inherent natural toxicants in lupin seeds, especially quinolizidin alkaloids. Lupin seeds are increasingly used in the Nordic countries, partially substituting wheat flour in certain foods. An estimation of the risk by consuming foods containing lupin seeds in the Nordic countries and recommendations to better ensure the safe use of these seeds in foods are given.



Chemical characterization

All plants of the genus Lupinus contain alkaloids, especially quinolizidine alkaloids (e.g. sparteine) but they can also contain piperidine alkaloids (e.g. ammodendrine and N-acetylammodendrine) and simple indole alkaloids (e.g. gramine). Examples of these three types of alkaloids are shown in Figure 1.


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