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The publication series Nord consists of year books, debate books and other special book publications and reports with a special branding profile.

Annual reports and debate books typically take a critical look at a special theme. For example, former publications include year books on language, ideas of a Nordic union, copyright legislation etc.

Special book publications include books about Nordic nature or the Nordic Statistical Yearbook (the 2014 edition will be the last yearbook published).

Nord publications cover subject matters in areas of Nordic co-operation for which there is a political desire for a particular focus, including climate solutions, green technology, welfare issues, cultural issues, and research and education.

Nordic Statistical Yearbook 2007

Nordic Statistical Yearbook 2007

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Nordic Council of Ministers
11 Sep 2007
9789289341189 (PDF)

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Please notice corrections have been made in the web version (see list of corrections). Nordic Statistical Yearbook 2007 is published for the 45th time. It is a reference book containing comprehensive and easily accessible statistics of various aspects of social life in the five Nordic countries, i.e. Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. In addition data are also presented on the selfgoverning regions, i.e. the Faroe Islands, Greenland and the Åland Islands. The aim of the yearbook is, as far as possible, to present comparable data on the Nordic countries. Additional tables on CDROM supplement the Nordic Statistical Yearbook. Observera att nätversionen innehåller korrigeringar (se rättelseblad). Nordisk statistisk årsbok utkommer nu för 45:e gången. Årsboken är en uppslagsbok, som avser vara en sammanfattande och överskådlig redovisning av statistik över samhällsförhållandena i de fem nordiska länderna Danmark, Finland, Island, Norge och Sverige. I många av tabellerna redovisas också uppgifter om de självstyrande områdena Färöarna, Grönland och Åland. Syftet med årsboken är att lägga fram sinsemellan jämförbara uppgifter om de nordiska länderna. Ytterligare tabeller finns på den CDROM som medföljer Nordisk statistisk årsbok 2007.

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  • Preface

    The Nordic countries have much in common – their way of life, history, language and social structure. Many of these common features and the results of their joint efforts may be described by statistics. This is why the Nordic Council of Ministers publishes the Nordic Statistical Yearbook.

  • The Nordic countries

    The Nordic countries are comprised of Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Finland, Åland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The Faroe Islands and Greenland are both part of the Kingdom of Denmark, while Åland is part of the Republic of Finland. Like Denmark, Norway and Sweden are monarchies, while Iceland and Finland are republics. Irrespective of their form of government, all heads of state have relatively limited powers in the Nordic countries. All the countries have democratic constitutions, drawn up in the 19th century, all of which, except for the Norwegian constitution, have been amended several times.

  • Environment

    The Nordic countries comprise a total area of 3.5 million sq km. Even without Greenland and the Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen, the remaining part of the Nordic countries covers a vast area of 1.2 million sq km. This area is the size of Germany, France and Italy together. The Nordic region stretches over five time zones. To the east, the region borders on Russia, and in fair weather one can just make out the Canadian coastline to the west. To the south, its neighbours are Germany and Poland, and to the north: the Arctic Ocean.

  • Population

    The total population in the Nordic countries has doubled during the last 100 years to approximately 25 million people. The strongest growth is seen in Greenland, where the population has multiplied by almost five. That of Iceland has multiplied by almost four, and the population on the Faroe Islands has tripled. The total population in the Nordic countries has increased by 1.6 million people (7 per cent) since 1990 – most in Iceland (20 per cent) and Norway (10 per cent). Certain regions in Sweden and Norway have experienced a decline in the population, but at the national level, all the countries have experienced an increase.

  • Health and causes of death

    Health service in the Nordic countries is public and, to a large extent, financed through taxes or through compulsory health insurance schemes. In all Nordic countries, except Greenland, citizens contribute directly, either through insurance schemes or by paying user charges for treatment or for pharmaceutical products. In Iceland, contributions are primarily made by the central government, while financing in the other countries consists mainly of county and/or municipal taxes with block grants from the government.

  • Income and social protection

    The Nordic countries have a long tradition of maintaining a high level of social protection. The Nordic Social Security Agreement, which deals with equality of treatment with respect to social issues and came into force in 1955, even provides that citizens of one Nordic country staying in another Nordic country have the same social rights as citizens of that particular country.

  • Housing and consumption

    In the Nordic countries, the shift from rural to urban society began in the early part of the 20th century along with the industrial revolution. At present, the population of the Nordic countries is largely urbanized. The share of one- and two-family houses out of the entire building stock is highest in Denmark and Åland with almost 60 per cent in Denmark and almost 70 per cent in Åland and lowest in Sweden with 45 per cent. Private ownership of such dwellings, whether a house or an apartment, is common. (Achieving comparable statistics on housing is complicated by differences in registration practices among the countries).

  • Education

    The Nordic education system differs between the countries in a number of fields. Comprehensive schools are compulsory in all Nordic countries and local authorities finance them with general grants from the state. In Denmark and Finland, education does not necessarily have to take place in a school. It may, for example, take place at home. After 9-10 years of compulsory schooling most students will pursue some form of continuing training.

  • Labour market

    The Nordic countries are characterized by high employment and low unemployment. All countries have a well-working labour market. By international standards, a very high proportion of the adult population is economically active.

  • Culture and leisure

    The policies of the Nordic countries with respect to cultural life, mass media and religion have many features in common. However, some differences may be pointed out – for instance, cultural institutions arising from historical circumstances.

  • Elections

    Nordic parliaments are based on a one-chamber system, although the Norwegian Storting functions as two separate chambers when dealing with certain issues. The Icelandic Althing, founded in 930 AD and reputed to be the oldest working parliament in the world, became one chamber in 1991.

  • Prices, interest rates and exchange rates

    The consumer price index is an indicator of developments in the general level of prices. The consumer index is split into several different sub-indices to enable analysis of specific groups of products and services where the changes have been most significant.

  • National economies and balance of payments

    The Nordic economies are among the countries in the Western World that have managed best of all in the recent ten years. In the Nordic countries, the economic key figures of the balance of payments, foreign debt, public finances, unemployment, interest rate, inflation, economic growth, average incomes and share prices are indeed very good in an international context.

  • Foreign trade

    The Nordic countries are small, open economies and foreign trade constitutes an important part of the economic activity. The foreign trade with goods, measured as the average of imports and exports, amounts to more than one fourth of the GDP in the Nordic countries. Except for the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Iceland, all the Nordic countries have a surplus in their balance of trade 2006.

  • Public finance

    The Nordic countries are often characterized as public welfare societies because the public sector takes care of many different tasks in addition to defence and law and public order and safety. These tasks are normally financed by means of taxes and social security contributions, which account for 41 to 51 per cent of GDP in the Nordic countries. The tax rate is highest in Sweden and lowest in Iceland.

  • Research and development

    The purpose of statistics on research and development (R&D) is to estimate resources devoted to this activity in all sectors – in particular, science and industry. Resources include both funding and staffing of R&D activities. Only government budget appropriations or outlays for R&D are included here.

  • The primary sector

    The primary sector comprising agriculture, forestry, fishery and hunting only accounts for a small part of total employment in the Nordic countries: from nearly 2 per cent of employment in Sweden, to 6 per cent of employment in Iceland. However, the sector forms indirectly the basis for a considerable part of production and employment. This is partly due to the circumstance that products from agriculture, forestry, fishery and hunting are used as raw materials in manufacturing and in other industries, and partly that many goods and services are required by the capital-intensive primary sector, such as agricultural machinery, wood-cutting equipment, fishing vessels, etc., and maintenance and services incidental to this machinery and equipment.

  • Manufacturing

    The industrial revolution arrived relatively late in the Nordic countries, and it was not until the beginning of the 20th century that readily available hydroelectric power led to widespread industrialization beyond a few industrial sites. The structure of the manufacturing industry in the Nordic countries is quite varied. Ranging from industries based on the raw material produced from agriculture, forestry and fishery to high technology industries, e.g. telecommunication. This variety is partly due to historic reasons, because in the early days of industrialization the countries tried to become self-reliant with respect to many of the known industrial products of the time and partly because of the flexibility of the Nordic industries, which have adapted to new industrial products of the present day.

  • Building and construction

    In the Nordic countries, the building and construction sector accounts for 5-7 per cent of total employment – most in Iceland (almost 7 per cent) and the least in Sweden (a little more than 5.5 per cent). Measured as the proportion of the total gross domestic product, the building and construction sector is even then most important in Iceland (9-10 per cent of GDP), while the sector in Sweden and Norway accounts for only 4-5 per cent of GDP. In Denmark and Finland, the building and construction sector accounts for 5-6 per cent of GDP.

  • Services and tourism

    The service sector includes retail and wholesale trade, hotels, restaurants, transportation, communication, financial services, real estate dealing, renting, business services and other services such as teaching and care of children, sick persons and the elderly – services typically rendered by the public sector in the Nordic countries. The service sector has increased drastically in all Nordic countries in the last 15 years and today accounts for about three-fourths of all employees. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Åland have the largest proportion of employees in the service sector, i.e. 76-78 per cent of those employed, while the corresponding figure is “only” 71 per cent in Finland and 72 per cent in Iceland.

  • Information and communication technology

    In an international context, the Nordic countries are in the lead when it comes to using modern information and communication technology. This is true of both the business sector and private individuals. In only six years – from 1995 to 2001 – total employment in the Nordic countries within the information and communication technology sector (the ICT sector) has increased by rather more than 60 per cent to a total of almost 600 000 employees. This equals about 9 per cent of total private sector employment in the Nordic countries. However, in 2001 the ICT sector experienced a worldwide crisis with a dramatic decline in the price of technology shares. This also led to a decrease in the number of ICT companies and in the number of persons employed in the ICT sector. Consequently, total employment in the Nordic ICT sector fell by 22 per cent from 2001 to 2003. The decrease was especially severe in the wholesale trade of ICT products. Here, employment was almost halved during these two years. Today (2004 data), about 455 000 persons are employed in the overall Nordic ICT sector, and about 170 000 of these employees are found in the manufacturing of ICT goods.

  • Nordic co-operation

    The Nordic region is where a strong spirit of co-operation between the countries of the far north of Europe has developed, deeply rooted in centuries of shared history, shared cultural traditions, shared geography, similar living conditions and similar societies.

  • User guide

    The Nordic Statistical Yearbook 2007 is published by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The yearbook comes with a CD-ROM, including the Nordic Statistics Databank 2007. The databank contains comparable statistics for Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Finland, Åland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data relating to Denmark do not include data on the Faroe Islands or Greenland. Figures for Åland are included in the Finnish figures, though figures for Åland are shown separately.

  • Installation of the CD-ROM “Nordic Statistics 2007”

    Insert the CD-ROM and it will start automatically. If this does not happen, run “go.exe” (e.g. D:\go.exe).

  • Contents of the CD-ROM “Nordic Statistics 20070”

    The list is made in the same order as the division of the book.

  • Geonomenclature
  • Standard international trade classification, rev. 3
  • Definitions and glossary – English
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